TTS Pharma Ltd


R&D Activities

We have a number of exciting and innovative cannabinoid research projects across several species generating the evidence needed to improve healthcare in both humans and animals. We are actively involved in, or sponsor, projects with different Universities under relevant U.K. Home Office licenses. These include ‘Seed genetics and phenomics’, ‘Fractionation’, ‘Process engineering & optimisation’, Preclinical trials into the comparative effects and efficacy of cannabinoids in the treatment of ‘Anxiety’; ‘Dependence and substance use’, ‘Infection, inflammation and immunity’ and ‘Pain and nausea’. 

Peer reviewed publications will be made available in due course.  

We invite enquiries from academic teams and partners who need reliable and consistent supplies of high quality Cannabinoid products manufactured utilising current ‘best practices’ found within the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) industry.

Telephone: +44 0151 482 9160



Preliminary evidence suggests that CBD reduces craving for opiates in humans.

NCBI, 2015.

Summary: Preliminary evidence suggests that CBD reduces craving for opiates in humans. 


Effects of CBD on agitation and anxiety in people suffering from Alzheimer’s Dementia.

The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, April 2021.

Summary: Ongoing study of high-CBD/low-THC sublingual solution. Results awaited.

Evaluating CBD and its effects on anxiety and acute stress in healthy adults.

Psychopharmacology, April 2021.

Summary: Cannabis may relieve stress in people who expect to benefit. People who already believed CBD to have anxiolytic qualities reported diminished anxiety.

Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety and Mood Disorders_ Molecular Targets and Epigenetic Insights from Preclinical Research.

Pubmed, February 2021. 

Summary: A summary of preclinical literature on anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of cannabidiol.

A systematic review of anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects of cannabinoids.

Journal of Transnational Medicine, October 2020. 

Summary: This recent overview provides a summary of all studies to date in humans and animals where cannabis extracts, THC and CBD have been investigated for their effects on anxiety.  

Cannabidiol may relieve severe anxiety symptoms

Pubmed, National Library of Medicine, October 2020. 

Summary: This case report describes a 20 year old man with social anxiety disorder and attenuated psychotic symptoms which had not responded to conventional treatment with antidepressants and psychological therapy. The man experienced symptom relief when treated with cannabidiol in doses between 200 and 800 mg/day for 6 months.

Endocannabinoids may have an important role in regulating anxiety and depressive behaviour in mice.

Pubmed, October 2020.

Summary: This paper gives further details about the mechanisms by which endocannabinoids may regulate mood.

Guidelines for research on cannabinoids for anxiety.

Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 2021.

Summary: Improving the quality of studies on anti anxiety effects of cannabinoids. Good overview of studies on anxiety conducted to date and suggestions for how the evidence could be strengthened.

Epilepsy and Degenerative Disorders

A review of the mechanisms by which cannabidiol might reduce oxidative stress and potentially be beneficial in Parkinsons disease.

Aging, April 2021.

Summary: How could cannabidiol reduce oxidative stress and help people with Parkinsons disease? CBD can target the WNT/β-catenin pathway by downregulating GSK-3β in preclinical studies resulting in relief of oxidative stress and inflammation.


Summary of preclinical evidence on cannabis and inflammatory bowel disease.

Frontiers in Pharmacology, April 2021.

Summary: Overview of lab studies on cannabis and inflammatory bowel disease. Cannabis may potentially affect gastrointestinal permeability and immune activation – the clinical benefits of this are uncertain.

Nausea and vomiting

THC/CBD formulation for nausea during chemotherapy.

Pubmed, November 2020. 

Summary: Preliminary data showing efficacy and patients preferred the formulation to placebo.


Substituting cannabidiol for opioids and Pain Medications by People With Fibromyalgia.

Journal of Pain, June 2021.

Summary: Most people who substituted cannabinoids for conventional pain medication found that they could reduce or stop medication. A study of people who were taking CBD for fibromyalgia (n=878) found that 72% had replaced their conventional medications with CBD. The main reasons for substituting being fewer side effects and better symptom management. CBD-Cannabis (Containing >0.3% THC) was found to be the most successful and occured the most substitutions.

Cannabinoids reduce pain associated behaviours in preclinical models.

PAIN Journal, March 2021.

Summary: CB1 and CB2 agonists can reduce pain in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models whereas cannabidiol may only reduce pain behaviour in neuropathic models.

Effects of CBD chewing gum on perceived pain in people with irritable bowel syndrome.

Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2021.

Summary: This study showed no overall reduction of pain on a group-wide basis, however individuals reported varying results.


Treating Insomnia Symptoms with Medicinal Cannabis.

Sleep Research Society, 2021.

Summary: Cannabinoid extract helps people with insomnia to achieve higher quality sleep while also allowing them to sleep for longer. Randomized trial of insomnia patients treated with CBD reported lower sleep onset latency and an average of one hour extra total sleep time, as well as a higher quality of sleep upon taking CBD.

Substance use

Clinical use of cannabinoids for substance use disorders.

Frontiers in Psychiatry, February 2021. 

Summary: Guidance for designing new studies on the effectiveness of cannabinoids for treating substance use disorders. Useful information about the outcomes to use for clinical trials. Paper suggests that genetic and phenotypic biomarkers of endocannabinoid system activity could be used to predict response.

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

Add-On Cannabidiol Treatment for Drug-Resistant Seizures in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

JAMA Neurology, December 2020. 

Summary: This randomised placebo controlled trial evaluated whether cannabidiol was effective in reducing the number of seizures in people with tuberous sclerosis.  All participants were already taking standard treatments for epilepsy.  The number of seizures was reduced by about half in people taking 25mg/kg/day of cannabidiol and by a similar amount in those taking 50mg/kg/day.  Common unwanted effects were diarrhoea and drowsiness which were more frequent in those taking the higher dose of cannabidiol.  

Veterinary Therapeutics

Distribution of Cannabinoid Receptors in Keratinocytes of Healthy Dogs and Dogs With Atopic Dermatitis. Chiocchetti R, De Silva M, Aspidi F, Cunha RZ, Gobbo F, Tagliavia C, Sarli G, Morini M. Front Vet Sci. 2022 Jul 8;9:915896. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2022.915896. eCollection 2022.

Effects of cannabidiol without delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on canine atopic dermatitis: A retrospective assessment of 8 cases. Mogi C, Yoshida M, Kawano K, Fukuyama T, Arai T. Can Vet J. 2022 Apr;63(4):423-426.

Pharmacokinetics of Cannabidiol Following Intranasal, Intrarectal, and Oral Administration in Healthy Dogs. Polidoro D, Temmerman R, Devreese M, Charalambous M, Ham LV, Cornelis I, Broeckx BJG, Mandigers PJJ, Fischer A, Storch J, Bhatti SFM. Front Vet Sci. 2022 Jun 7;9:899940. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2022.899940. eCollection 2022.

Use of cannabis in the treatment of animals: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Lima TM, Santiago NR, Alves ECR, Chaves DSA, Visacri MB. Anim Health Res Rev. 2022 Jun;23(1):25-38. doi: 10.1017/S1466252321000189. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

A Case Report of Subcutaneously Injected Liposomal Cannabidiol Formulation Used as a Compassion Therapy for Pain Management in a Dog. Shilo-Benjamini Y, Cern A, Zilbersheid D, Hod A, Lavy E, Barasch D, Barenholz Y. Front Vet Sci. 2022 Apr 28;9:892306. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2022.892306. eCollection 2022. PMID: 35573415 Free PMC article.

Current review of hemp-based medicines in dogs. R C Coelho MP, de O P Leme F, A Moreira F, E M T Branco S, M Melo M, G de Melo E. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2021 Nov;44(6):870-882. doi: 10.1111/jvp.13016. Epub 2021 Oct 3.

Effect of Cannabidiol (CBD) on Canine Inflammatory Response: An Ex Vivo Study on LPS Stimulated Whole Blood.Gugliandolo E, Licata P, Peritore AF, Siracusa R, D’Amico R, Cordaro M, Fusco R, Impellizzeri D, Di Paola R, Cuzzocrea S, Crupi R, Interlandi CD.
Vet Sci. 2021 Sep 4;8(9):185. doi: 10.3390/vetsci8090185.
Cannabidiol-based natural health products for companion animals: Recent advances in the management of anxiety, pain, and inflammation.Yu CHJ, Rupasinghe HPV. Res Vet Sci. 2021 Nov;140:38-46. doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2021.08.001. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of daily cannabidiol for the treatment of canine osteoarthritis pain. Verrico CD, Wesson S, Konduri V, Hofferek CJ, Vazquez-Perez J, Blair E, Dunner K Jr, Salimpour P, Decker WK, Halpert MM. Pain. 2020 Sep 1;161(9):2191-2202. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001896.

Oral Transmucosal Cannabidiol Oil Formulation as Part of a Multimodal Analgesic Regimen: Effects on Pain Relief and Quality of Life Improvement in Dogs Affected by Spontaneous Osteoarthritis. Brioschi FA, Di Cesare F, Gioeni D, Rabbogliatti V, Ferrari F, D’Urso ES, Amari M, Ravasio G. Animals (Basel). 2020 Aug 26;10(9):1505. doi: 10.3390/ani10091505.

Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs. Gamble LJ, Boesch JM, Frye CW, Schwark WS, Mann S, Wolfe L, Brown H, Berthelsen ES, Wakshlag JJ. Front Vet Sci. 2018 Jul 23;5:165. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2018.00165. eCollection 2018.

Randomized, placebo-controlled, 28-day safety and pharmacokinetics evaluation of repeated oral cannabidiol administration in healthy dogs.

Vaughn DM, Paulionis LJ, Kulpa JE. Am J Vet Res. 2021 May;82(5):405-416. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.82.5.405.

Cannabis sativa L. may reduce aggressive behaviour towards humans in shelter dogs.

Corsetti S, Borruso S, Malandrucco L, Spallucci V, Maragliano L, Perino R, D’Agostino P, Natoli E. Sci Rep. 2021 Feb 2;11(1):2773. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-82439-2.

The Impact of Feeding Cannabidiol (CBD) Containing Treats on Canine Response to a Noise-Induced Fear Response Test. Morris EM, Kitts-Morgan SE, Spangler DM, McLeod KR, Costa JHC, Harmon DL.
Front Vet Sci. 2020 Sep 22;7:569565. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2020.569565. eCollection 2020.
Probable cutaneous adverse drug reaction due to a cannabidiol-containing hemp oil product in a dog. Simpson AC, Bradley CW, Schissler JR. Vet Dermatol. 2020 Oct;31(5):404-e108. doi: 10.1111/vde.12876. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Preliminary Investigation of the Safety of Escalating Cannabinoid Doses in Healthy Dogs. Vaughn D, Kulpa J, Paulionis L. Front Vet Sci. 2020 Feb 11;7:51. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00051. eCollection 2020.
Randomized blinded controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of oral cannabidiol administration in addition to conventional antiepileptic treatment on seizure frequency in dogs with intractable idiopathic epilepsy. McGrath S, Bartner LR, Rao S, Packer RA, Gustafson DL. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2019 Jun 1;254(11):1301-1308. doi: 10.2460/javma.254.11.1301.

Simple and Fast Gas-chromatography Mass Spectrometry Assay to Assess Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol in Dogs Treated with Medical Cannabis for Canine Epilepsy. Rotolo MC, Graziano S, Pellegrini M, Corlazzoli D, Antinori L, Porcarelli L, Pichini S.Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2017;18(10):821-827. doi: 10.2174/1389201018666171122115815.